Monday, February 19, 2007

Isabelle Zehnder (CAICA): The Short Life of Angellika Arndt: Bubbles in My Milk

Isabelle Zehnder (CAICA): The Short Life of Angellika "Angie" Arndt: Bubbles in My Milk

(Click here for picture gallery)

When the horrifying news came about Angie’sdeath, one mother recalls her daughter’s reaction:
“Mom, I know how she died,” her daughter said.“How did Angie die?” her mom asked.“She couldn’t breathe,” the child said.How did she know this? It happened to her, too. Luckily she came out alive.

Information and Resource Packet
Prepared by Isabelle Zehnder
December 7, 2006©

Disclaimer: The contents of this resource and information packet were taken from news articles, newsletter, videos, reports, court documents, and statements.

Table of Contents


Angie's Early Days

Outrageous Behavior for a child: Blowing bubbles in her milk

Recognized guidelines for restraint: Were they used in Angie's case?

Angie's final cries for help fall on deaf ears

News update: Facility and staff charged

An important first step

What next?

What others have to say




“In order to effect change, we must first recognize the need for change”

The State of Wisconsin has been hit with a tragedy that, in my opinion, needs to be reviewed and discussed. Changes need to be made. New laws need to be enacted. Why? Because a little girl lost her life at the age of 7 and if things don’t change, others will follow. This was a senseless and needless death that occurred at the hands of those who were supposed to be trained to help her. Not end her life.

Her name was Angellika “Angie” Arndt and she was a beautiful little girl. Her life was cut short because of inadequate staff training and the use of good old common sense. Angie was placed into a dangerous face-down prone restraint position and held down by a man nearly 5 times her body weight for nearly 50 minutes. The weight of his body on her upper torso caused her death. The day before she died she was reprimanded for blowing bubbles in her milk and laughing during lunchtime. Her punishment was being held down in the same face-down prone restraint position for 98 minutes.

After reviewing all of the facts in Angie’s case, Randall Cullen, M.D., concluded Angie posed no real threat to herself or staff, the guidelines for restraining a child. In fact, he stated the staff’s actions escalated the situation and that, given the chance, Angie would have likely calmed down on her own.

It is my hope that you will read this resource and information packet in full to understand the impact of what can happen, and does happen, to children who are placed in dangerous face-down prone restraints in treatment facilities. This is by far not an isolated incident.[1]
Restraint deaths of innocent children appear to be on the rise. An increase of children needing services, coupled with untrained staff and lax restraint policies, have played a role in many of these deaths. It is not always easy to find qualified, caring, and compassionate people who are willing to work with children with special needs. Placing children in the hands of unqualified, untrained staff is a recipe for disaster, as we have all too often seen.

I believe it is time for change. We, as a society, need to get involved, we need to act, and we need to see to it that changes are made. Not just in the state of Wisconsin, but in all states. Why wait until it is one of our children, grandchildren, nieces, or nephews?

In the state of Wisconsin, it is our hope that “Angie’s Law” will be enacted, banning the use of deadly prone restraints on children. In the state of Pennsylvania, it is our hope that “Joey’s Law” will be enacted, again banning the use of deadly prone restraints on children. States, like Texas, have paved the path. It’s time, in my opinion, for other states follow their lead.

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Angie had a rough start in life. Her biological parents relinquished custody of her when she was a toddler. She did not escape without abuse. She was bounced around the foster care system for several years until she finally found “Mom and Dad”, foster parents Daniel and Donna Pavlik. The Pavliks’ provided her with a stable, loving, normal, and happy life, and intended to raise Angie until she turned 18. They took her into their home and into their hearts.

Angie was a girl known for her beautiful smile. She loved dolls, camping, going on walks, going to McDonald’s, listening to country music, and birthday parties. She enjoyed imitating her sister Sasha and playing with her friends. Just like any other little 7-year old girl. The Pavlik’s have hundreds of pictures of Angie laughing and smiling, enjoying life to the fullest. Her mom said, “She was a happy little girl who lit up the room.” According to her obituary, Angie was, “A joy to be around and touched many lives.”

The Medical Examiner ruled Angie’s death was caused by positional asphyxia and that she died in the course of Ridout’s restraint.

The Pavlik’s wanted the best for Angie. They knew, given what she had been through during her first five years of life, that Angie would need help. They enrolled her into the Marriage and Family Health Services (MFHS) “Mikan” program where she thrived. In an August 2006 MFHS Newsletter, they said,“She was a small little girl with big friendly eyes who was a very workable child … Angie was a good child who had bad things happen to her.” They stated that during Angie’s eight-week stay at their program, she was never restrained, nor was she ever emotionally or physically traumatized.[2]

The Pavlik’s were making good progress with Angie. But it came to an abrupt halt when a social worker suggested last spring that Angie re-enter day treatment in order to get caught up with school and to give her the best shot at first grade. [3] Unfortunately, the Mikan program was full and Angie was not old enough for MFHS’ Ladysmith program. She was instead admitted to the Rice Lake Day Treatment Clinic in Rice Lake, Wisconsin, late last spring. This was not a residential treatment facility where children stayed overnight. She went during the day, Monday through Friday.

During her stay at Rice Lake her mom and dad saw changes in Angie, and the changes were not for the better. They made an appointment to talk to the Rice Lake director, but the June 6th appointment date came too late. Angie was already gone by then.

Angie’s life was taken at the hands of the very people who were hired to care for and help her, not recklessly and needlessly end her life.

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On May 24, the day before her death, Angie arrived at Rice Lake around 11:30 a.m. She was sitting having lunch with the other children when she got the giggles and blew bubbles in her milk. She was reprimanded and told to stop laughing and to stop blowing bubbles. When she laughed again, she was taken to “time out” where she was told to sit still on a hard chair. This is a seven-year old child with attention deficit disorder, so sitting still in a chair was a very difficult thing to do. This was done as a “cool down” period.

During this “cool down,” Angie crossed her legs and rested her head on her knees. Because she did not do exactly what she was told to do she was taken to the “cool down” room, a closet-sized room with nothing but a chair, a mat on the middle of a cement floor, and blank walls. “I don’t want to go,” she cried.

But she was forced to go. She was told once again to sit in a chair and not move. She covered her ears and began to cry. She was tired and curled up on the chair. She fell asleep, was woken up, and told to sit appropriately and complete the cool-down. She was asleep, how much cooler did she need to be?

Head up, feet down, don’t move, and be quiet.

Again she fell asleep and again they woke her up. She became agitated and began to swing her legs. As this continued and staff surrounded her, she became more agitated and was restrained in her chair.

She was told if she struggled it would be considered “unsafe behavior”. She knew that meant she would be taken down and put into a face-down prone restraint. She was told by staff not to cry and to control her emotions. But she was not able to control her emotions and she couldn’t stop crying. During the course of the chair restraint she fell out of her chair. Knowing what would come next, she pleaded with them, saying she would complete the “cool down.” But it was too late.

It appears that in the minds of the staff, and after a staff discussion, this called for an all-out face-down floor restraint. She was taken down by two adults. One grabbed her ankles while the other grabbed her shoulders and held her down for 98 minutes. During this time she struggled, cried, screamed for help. But no one responded to her pleas for help.

It was reported that during some of the prone restraints she vomited, lost control of her bodily functions, complained of headaches, complained of eye pain, and fell asleep – or possibly passed out.

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"Risks of Restraints" Brochure

"Especially dangerous positions" include face-down floor restraints. The problem is, one staff person's "emergency" may be another's lack of training."



The accepted guidelines for the use of physical restraints are responding to a child’s behavior that is so serious and violent that they are a threat to the safety of themselves or others. The question is: Were these guidelines used in Angie’s case?

Most of Angie’s 30 days at Rice Lake were spent in either cool-down (time-out) or on the floor in face-down prone restraints. Some restraints lasted as long as 98 minutes.

The recognized guidelines for prone restraints are one minute for every year of age. Angie was 7.

From the start things did not go well for Angie at Rice Lake. On her first day she was restrained in the dangerous, face-down prone position for 97 minutes because she was hitting her hand on her chin, didn’t stop when she was told, fidgeted on the cool-down chair, and kicked her shoe off her foot.[4]

In Angie’s case, the incidents that precipitated prone restraints revolved mostly around the cool-down chair and included: sitting inappropriately, falling asleep, fidgeting, refusing to remain seated, crossing her feet and folding her arms, throwing herself back in the chair, pulling her knees up and putting her feet on the chair, pulling her shirt over her head, and kicking her shoe off her foot.

A question was asked. When does pulling your shirt over your head, crossing your feet, or falling asleep meet the criteria for restraining a child? The Rice Lake director indicated Angie was placed in these holds to “ensure everyone’s safety.”

According to a review of the Rice Lake Day Treatment Program submitted July 17, 2006, by Randall Cullen, M.D., he states there was no real physical threat to staff or to Angie. The unrealistic demands for total body control, sitting perfectly still in a prescribed manner seems to invite oppositional behaviors. He further stated these expectations are not appropriate for pre-teens with impulse control problems, attention problems, and often devastating histories of extreme control or abuse. The review indicated Angie most likely would have calmed herself, given a chance. Many of these escalations could have possibly been avoided if expectations were more age-appropriate.

The incidents that precipitated cool-downs were being disruptive, off-task, not sitting appropriately, throwing an object, not being able to follow directions, drawing on her pants, not participating in group, standing up without permission, having her hood on, gargling milk, talking to peers during lunch, kicking the table, using baby talk, and putting her arms inside her shirt. Expectations for cool-downs: sit still, quiet, upright, with feet on the floor. Angie had attention deficit disorder making this very difficult for her to accomplish.

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Jodi Pelishek, Family Advocate for Wisconsin Family Ties, helps place a banner to honor Angie and promote community awareness of children’s mental health issues less than a block away from where Angie died. She and Rick Pelishek, Office Director of NW Wisconsin Disability Rights Commission, are working to insure that Angie is not forgotten and that in the future laws are changed and families supported on their journey of parenting challenging children.
You can reach Jo (715) 790-1317, You can reach Rick at (715) 736-1232, “Let Them Bloom”, a father’s perspective by Rick Pelishek.

On Angie’s last day at the Rice Lake Day Treatment Center, she was reprimanded for misbehaving in the kitchen. Her punishment?

Angie was taken to the “cool down” room and placed in a face-down prone restraint. Again two staff participated in the restraint. One held her ankles while the other held her upper body. Bradley Ridout was summoned to assist another employee in the restraint. At the time, Angie was laying in a prone position, face-down on a thinly-carpeted cement floor. The other employee restrained Angie’s legs while Ridout covered her upper torso with his body, initially supporting his weight with his elbows. But as time went on his body weight of about 250 pounds shifted on her small upper torso, suffocating her.

During the course of this restraint she cried, screamed, thrashed, begged for help, said she couldn’t breathe, complained of a headache, and said her eyes hurt. Rather than stop to listen to her complaints, Ridout grabbed her head and held her down. He continued holding her down for about 30 minutes, putting pressure on her small upper body.[5]

No one seemed to listened to her, no one seemed to believed her. Instead, regardless of the fact that she vomited, urinated and defecated on herself, and was crying out for help, they continued to hold her down. Finally, she became quiet and still. Finally she gave up. When they released her, Ridout rolled her small listless body over and noticed her face was blue.

Why had no one noticed this before it was too late? Why had no one responded to her pleas for help?

She had stopped breathing. They tried to revive her, called 911, but it was too late. The medical examiner ruled Angie’s death was caused by positional asphyxia and that she died in the course of Ridout’s restraint.[6] His body weight upon her back significantly impaired and ultimately precluded her ability to breathe.

Ridout now claims he was just doing what he was taught to do.

Ridout’s attorney said the charges against Ridout allege he was much bigger than Angie and that he should have known better than to put her in a choke hold, despite his training.[7]

According to the Affidavit of Chief Investigator John Knappmiller, of the Wisconsin Department of Justice, there were numerous acts and omissions by employees of Rice Lake Day Treatment that had compromised Angie’s safety. Unskilled staff performed almost daily physical restraint of Angie, following an ambiguously written restraint policy. He stated, “The ‘emergency’ restraint policy became the justification for the almost daily physical restraint of Angie.” The staff member responsible for training of all staff in proper restraint techniques had, himself, never actually received any appropriate training. The methods he taught were self-devised and substandard, including the use of the face-down-on-the-floor-hold used on Angie on the day of her death.[8]

Angie was portrayed to some media as an aggressive child. MFHS, the program she attended prior to attending Rice Lake Treatment, stated, “We at MFHS feel an obligation to mention Angie in a more accurate light. She was not the aggressive, out of control child that was presented to the media. We hope that her loss can bring about change … the majority of children we serve have had enough trauma in their lives.”

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Officer Dewayne Reiten of the Rice Lake Police Dept. reported he observed Angie at the Lakeview Medical Center in Rice Lake before she was transferred to the Children’s Hospital. According to a December 6 news article, Reiten reported he observed a bruised area on the right side of Angie’s face, both of her knees had abrasions on them, and there was an abrasion to the left side of her face. Northwest Guidance and Counseling Clinic Inc. pleaded no contest to one felony count of negligent abuse. Staffer Bradley Ridout pleaded no contest to misdemeanor negligent patient abuse.

Northwest faces a maximum punishment of $100,000 fine. Ridout faces up to nine months in jail and a $10,000 fine. Sentencing for the center and Ridout are set for December 27. Ridout was freed on a $1,000 signature bond, according to court documents.[9]

After 28 minutes of being in the face-down, prone restraint position, Ridout was called to assist another employee already restraining Angie. She was crying, thrashing, complaining of a headache and eye pain, and rather than listen to her pleas for help they continued to restrain her. News articles today revealed Ridout held her head for about 30 minutes longer, she quieted down, and he continued to hold her down another 10 minutes. When he released her staff noticed she was not moving. He shook her but she did not respond. He then rolled her small, listless body over and noticed her face was blue. He began CPR but it was too late.
Though some news reports have indicated Angie died the following day at the hospital, the Hennepin County, Minnesota, Medical Examiner concluded her death was caused by positional asphyxia and that she died in the course of being restrained. The weight of the staff member upon her back significantly impaired her ability to breathe.[10]

After today’s court appearance, Ridout read a statement expressing "deep sadness":
"I regret that any of my actions to help protect this girl may have actually caused her harm," he said. "I understand the demand for personal responsibility. I hope that my decision not to contest the charge is the first step in allowing everyone involved with this tragedy to begin to heal and to move forward."

Now that Northwest has been convicted of a felony, will they be allowed to operate their other 12 facilities? According to a Chronotype news article, the answer to that question is, surprisingly, yes, under certain conditions. The no contest pleas were part of a plea agreement entered into by the corporation, Ridout, Assistant Attorney General William Hanrahan and Barron County District Attorney Angela Holmstrom.[11]

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It was determined that faulty training, improper restraint, numerous acts and omissions by employees of the facility, failing to follow a treatment plan for Angie, using improperly taught and administered restraint, among other things, contributed to Angie’s death.

Just days after Angie’s death, Denison Tucker, president of the clinic’s board of directors, said they’ve done an internal review and determined their staff, which is trained and licensed, followed proper procedures for the hold.[12]

Angie’s death was ruled a homicide by the medical examiner. Last June, Barron County District Attorney Angela Holmstrom said the medical definition of homicide is death caused by another person. She also said they did not know if they would be able to prove criminal homicide in this case, as there has to be an intentional act or criminal reckless conduct, which results in a death.[13]

Now, they know. The organization, the Northwest Counseling and Guidance Clinic (Northwest), is being charged with a felony and faces a fine up to $100,000.

Ridout, the staff responsible for her death is being charged with misdemeanor negligent abuse of a patient causing bodily harm and faces a fine of up to $10,000 and/or a maximum of 9 months in jail. [14]

Holmstrom, said “The charges are appropriate for the levels of culpability each of the defendants share in the death of Angellika Arndt.”

A November 30, phone call by CAICA to Holmstrom yielded few answers – Ms. Holmstrom cannot discuss the case while it is pending, she said in a voice-mail message to CAICA. But her assistant told CAICA that the DA evaluates the information she receives in each individual case and then sets the charge according to what is appropriate.

Some believe this is but a slap on the hand. Reports revealed the facility did not follow proper guidelines and laws when restraining Angie and that there was no evidence showing she was a danger to herself or others, which is the legal guideline for performing prone restraints on a child in the state of Wisconsin.

Minnesota and Wisconsin have somewhat differing laws about restraint, but neither state forbids its use altogether.

Wisconsin’s Mental Health Act requires that clients in public and private treatment centers not be restrained “except for emergency situations” or when the restraint is part of a treatment program.

In Minnesota, the use of restraint in inpatient programs is strictly regulated, with each program required to be certified in its use. “Most programs have worked really hard to create an environment where holds are very rare,” said Mary Regan, executive director of the Minnesota Council of Child-Caring Agencies, an association of children’s treatment providers.[15]

But day treatment programs are not covered by the law. And schools in both states may use restraints in emergencies.

I personally agree with Rick Pelishek, the Rice Lake-based regional director of Disability Rights Wisconsin, when he said, “This was not an accident or mishap … I think it is an important first step in holding the organization accountable for their actions, and correcting the problems that have existed for years.” Disability Rights Wisconsin is a nonprofit watchdog group that earlier recommended the Rice Lake center be closed.[16]

Again, some say this is but a slap on the hand for the clinic and questioned why Ridout received a misdemeanor when the Medical Examiner ruled that Angie died as a result of the weight he placed on her body while he improperly restrained her.

Some questions that have been raised: How much is Angie’s life worth? $110,000? How much of a message is this going to send? Is this the most the District Attorney can do? Aren’t there other remedies of law that would send a stronger message? What would happen if a parent held a child down for over an hour and a half for making bubbles in her milk? Would that be considered normal discipline?

Or if the child was held down again the following day for over an hour because she misbehaved in the kitchen? What if the child complained of a headache and eye pain, struggled, vomited, lost control of her bodily functions, and later died? Would the parent face serious legal consequences?[17]

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According to an August 1, 2006, Capital Time article, the State instructed Northwest to move the 11 children remaining at Rice Lake and that none of their other 12 centers would be affected.[18] CAICA contacted DHFS director Otis Woods in August to question why the other 12 facilities would not be affected. Woods assured CAICA that all 12 centers would be investigated.
According to a November 30, Chronotype article, Woods wrote a letter to Rice Lake Clinic board president Dennyson Tucker informing him that a state-imposed plan of corrections must be followed at its 12 other sites. “We continue to be concerned with the number of control holds within the NWGCC system,” Woods wrote.[19]

The article further states that in a letter to the state dated Nov. 10, Tucker wrote, “The public scrutiny, although understandable, would place the program under an onerous set of public expectations for perfection.” He does not plan to reopen in Rice Lake.

Facilities working with children, including Northwest, cannot hire staff who have been convicted of felony child abuse charges. Since that is the case, the question is why should it be any different if the organization responsible for the facility has been charged with a felony? The staff at the remaining 12 facilities presumably received the same training as staff did at Rice Lake. It would be one thing if they had stopped their use of restraints on children, but according to Otis Woods, that is not the case.

What about other children still in their care? I doubt Angie was the only child who endured pain and trauma that, had she lived, might have caused her severe mental and emotional trauma, much more than what she came to Rice Lake with in the first place.

Advocates recognize the deficiencies in a system that should be there to help children with special needs. There is a rise in children diagnosed with autism, ADHD, Asperger Syndrome, to name a few. With this rise there needs to be a system in place to help families in desperate need of help. I believe Angie’s story could help effect change.

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Donna Wrenn, executive director of the National Association for the Mentally Ill: "No matter what a child's behavior is, I can't imagine holding them down to the point of suffocating them … it's a horrible tragedy. It's unbelievable. Someone needs to be held accountable."

Rick Pelishek, Regional director of Disability Rights Wisconsin: "This was not an accident or mishap … I think it is an important first step in holding the organization accountable for their actions, and correcting the problems that have existed for years.”

Mary Beth Kelley, former special education teacher: "She should have never been on her stomach, she should have been upright … there's been enough research out there, enough deaths, that I'm surprised anyone would still use that as a practice.”

Anne Gearity, clinical social worker, Washburn Child Guidance Center, Minneapolis: “The fact that Angellika was held in the face-down position, and for periods of between one and two hours each time, is totally unacceptable … whatever happened, they lost control.”

Crisis Prevention Institute, a prominent provider of training: "We always try to say in our training that any time we put our hands on someone, we're introducing risk … there is no safe physical restraint."

Daniel and Donna Pavlik, Angie’s Mom and Dad: “Angie was never a danger to herself or others, we never restrained her … we made huge gains on her behavior … her difficult times could be minutes or an hour out of a whole day. Not ever was a complete day a difficult day.''[20]

Barbara J. Harrison, licensed social worker and registered nurse: "Sometimes the staff in these programs are not very experienced, and I think they can fuel the fire … in this program they were clearly into control."

Bradley Ridout, Rice Lake mental health professional-group facilitator: Bradley A. Ridout said he doesn’t feel he did anything wrong and that he was simply doing what he was trained to do by the facility. He says he feels terrible about what happened. Bradley Ridout’s attorney: Ridout’s attorney said the charges against Ridout allege he was much bigger than the girl and should have known better than to put the girl in a choke hold, despite his training.[21]

Angela Holmstrom, District Attorney: “The charges are appropriate for the levels of culpability each of the defendants share in the death of Angellika Arndt.”

Dennison Tucker, Rice Lake president of the clinic’s board of directors: Tucker believes his staff followed proper procedures for the hold, a hold he says is used only if a child is in danger of harming him or herself or another person. He stands behind his staff and believes they did nothing to contribute to Angie’s death.[22]
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It is hard to imagine what went through the minds of employees, all claiming to be professionals, when they physically restrained Angie in some manner nearly every day over a month’s time. She was a small 7-year old 56-pound little girl. She was placed in dangerous, face-down prone restraints nine times over the course of 30 days, some restraints lasting 97 and 98 minutes. These types of restraints are known to have taken the lives of many children.[23]

I would hope that anyone working with children in a treatment setting will take time to ask these questions, and seek answers for themselves so in the future they use common sense when taking the life of children into their hands.

I also challenge you to imagine what it is like for a small child placed into a prone, face-down restraint with the weight of an adult 2, 3, sometimes 4 or more times their body weight.
It is estimated Ridout weighed about 250 pounds, nearly five times Angie’s weight of 56 pounds. Imagine a 1,115-pound person sitting on the upper torso of a 250-pound person.

Questions to ask ourselves:

Why did Rice Lake Treatment staff fail to consult Angie’s prior records?

Why was the employee in charge of teaching restraints not trained properly?

Why were Ridout and other staff not taught it was inappropriate to place a child in a dangerous face-down prone restraint for over 90 minutes for wiggling in her chair?

Why was the staff not taught to use common sense?

Why was Angie placed in nearly daily restraints when in other settings she never needed to be restrained?

Why did Ridout and other employees choose to ignore Angie’s cries for help, ignoring her complaints of headache and eye pain?

Why did the fact Angie vomited and lost control of her bodily functions not send out red flags that something was dreadfully wrong?

Why did no one notice, until it was too late, that she was turning blue?

Why, when she stopped thrashing and crying out, did Ridout continue to hold her down? Where was the other staff?

As professionals caring for children in a residential setting, were the staff aware of the many deaths of children who are placed in face-down prone restraints?[24] If not, they should be made aware.

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[1] Coalition Against Institutionalized Child Abuse (CAICA) List of Restraint Deaths.

[2] August 2006, Marriage & Family Health Services, Ltd., Mikan Newsletter.

[3] June 15, 2006, By Heather Brown, Foster parents question girl’s death.

[4] July 17, 2006, By Randall Cullen, MD, Review of Rice Lake Day Treatment Program.

[5] December 1, 2006, Pioneer Press article: Restraint death charges filed.

[6] June 24, 2006, Pioneer Press article: Clinic cited in girl’s death.

[7] December 1, 2006, Pioneer Press article: Counseling center, staffer charged in girl’s death.

[8] November 29, 2006, Affidavit of John Knappmiller, Chief Investigator for the Medicaid Fraud Control.

[9] December 9, 2006, Daily News, Counseling center, staffer convicted in girl’s death.

[10] December 9, 2006, Chippewa Herald, Attorney General says Rice Lake clinic found guilty in girl’s death

[11] December 7, 2006, Chronotype Rice Lake article: Company, worker enter ‘no contest’ pleas in death.

[12] May 31, 2006, AP Eau Claire article: Police: Patient died after taken to hospital.

[13] June 15, 2006, The Chronotype Rice Lake article: Homicide charge possible in girl's death.

[14] December 1, 2006, Star Tribune article: 7-year-old's death brings charges of negligence.

[15] July 5, 2006, Pioneer Press article: Controlling out-of-control kids: When is restraint OK?

[16] December 1, 2006, Star Tribune article: 7-year-old's death brings charges of negligence.

[17] July 2, 2006, Leader-Telegraph article: Initial report in girl’s death are disturbing.

[18] August 1, 2006, The Capital Times article: Rice Lake Center to shut, girl fatally hurt there in May.

[19] November 30, 2006, The Chronotype Rice Lake article: DA says criminal charges will be filed in girl’s death.

[20] July 10, 2006, Pioneer Press article: Before she died, Angie had finally found her place.

[21] December 1, 2006, Pioneer Press article: Counseling center, staffer charged in girl’s death.

[22] June 5, 2006, Heather Brown, Officials looking into 7-year old girl’s death.

[23] Coalition Against Institutionalized Child Abuse (CAICA) List of Restraint Deaths.

[24] Coalition Against Institutionalized Child Abuse (CAICA) List of Restraint Deaths.


News articles, information, and documents

List of restraint deaths

Compassionate Friends: Help for grieving families

In harms way: Deadly and dangerous restraints by Barbara White-Stack

Let Them Bloom

Mechanical restraint death: Matthew Goodwin

Memorial for children who have died in residential treatment

Picture Gallery

Restraint asphyxia: Silent Killer by Charly Miller

Restraint Death: Giovanni “Joey” Aletriz

Restraint Death: Charles “Chase” Moody

Seclusions and restraints: A failure, not a treatment by Laurel Mildred

TASH Guide: In the name of treatment